Saturday, March 21, 2020
They demonstrate a central tendency which should not rule out a range of differences within each concept. ) 1. Assertiveness:Ã U. S. Americans tend to be candid and outspoken in communication with others, and they seldom shy away from disclosing facts about themselves. They prefer direct questions and respond with straight answers. They employ face-to-face confrontations to resolve differences. These patterns of behavior sometimes lead people from other cultures to view U. S. Americans as overly aggressive. 2. Effort-Optimism:Ã The linking of effort with optimism is one of the central characteristics of U. S. thought. Effort-optimism is a denial of fatalism;Ã it is the assumption that any challenge can be met, any goal achieved, if only a sufficient quantity of time, energy, skill, and willpower are applied. The motto of the U. S. Navys Construction Battalions (See-Bees) during World War II exemplifies this concept:Ã The difficult we do immediately;Ã the impossible takes a little longer. We will write a custom essay sample on How to Reduce Accidents or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 3. Friendliness:Ã U. S. friendships is typified by warmth, informality, and other signs of acceptance, even toward comparative strangers. On the other hand, U. S. Americans assume that friendship involves comparatively few mutual obligations and lasts a relatively short time. People from other cultures become confused because those whom they would consider mere acquaintances are called friends by U. S. Americans, and because the warm manner of U. S. Americans leads them to expect a degree of commitment that the U. S. Americans do not feel and would find difficult to accept. 4. Getting Things Done:Ã U. S. Americans are most content when they are doing something. They believe that hard work is intrinsically valuable. In judging others, they give the most weight to their achievements, much less to character or spiritual qualities. U. S. Americans strive for efficiency because it enables them to get more things done in a given period of time. To people from certain other cultures, however, U. S. Americans seem driven. 5. Individualism:Ã The concept of individualism stresses the separateness of one human being from another, and the responsibility and initiative that each person must take on his own behalf. U. S. Americans join and leave groups frequently according to changing personal needs. people from highly group-centered cultures find the U. S. way of life fragmented because of its focus on individuals. 6. Materialism:Ã Like most other peoples, U. S. Americans are concerned about their well-being;Ã the difference in some cases is that U. S. Americans measure their well-being in terms of the number of tangible things at their command that enable them to enjoy uninterrupted comfort and convenience. People from cultures where spiritual, intellectual, or personal qualities are most highly valued may be so dazzled by U. S. Americans materialism that they overlook their finer values. 7. Pragmatism:Ã U. S. Americans are deeply practical. They want things, procedures, and people to meet the requirements of actual use in daily life. They tend to be adaptable and realistic, and they rely on common sense. Ã In making judgments, U. S. Americans are most interested in whether something works. Other peoples around the world often give more weight to historical tradition, theological command, moral purity, or theoretical consistency. 8. Progress:Ã U. S. Americans are oriented toward the future;Ã they want it to be better than their past and present. Given their elentless pursuit of happiness, they believe not only that thi ngs and people can be made to improve, but also that they should be made to improve. 9. Puritanism:Ã Puritanism is the term that describes the U. S. American habit of seeing a cause-effect relationship between correct thinking and good behavior on the one hand, and material reward or successful outcome on the other. It arose out of the old Calvinist doctrine that prosperity and success were sure signs that an individual was in Gods favor. 10. Scientific Method:Ã The methods of science involve devotion to attitudes such as skepticism, empiricism, and rationalism, and to procedures such as experimentation, detailed analysis, and inductive reasoning (reasoning from established facts to tentative conclusions). U. S. Americans seem to have a built-in readiness to accept scientific explanations as far more likely than any other possible explanation. Other peoples often remain at least as likely to rely on mysticism, authority, or tradition. 11. Success:Ã The self-esteem of individual U. S. Americans is largely tiedÃ to their ability to get ahead in terms of the recognition of their peers as well as material affluence and social mobility. There is a deeply held belief in the U. S. thatÃ anyone- through hard work, talent, and persistence- can rise well above the station in life to which he or she is born. Many other peoples around the world regard their status and role in life as both permanent and proper, and fail to comprehend the constant upward striving of U. S. Americans. 12. Time Consciousness:Ã U. S. Americans tend to feel that time is relentlessly rushing past them, and they frequently need to know exactly what time it is. They attempt to save time by moving at a rapid pace, taking shortcuts, and improving their efficiency of operations. They soon become anxious if forced to waste time. U. S. Americans are nearly always punctual and they expect others to be on time, too. Many other peoples have a far more relaxed attitude about time;Ã some seem to be almost unaware of its passage and in no way share U. S. Americans concern for punctuality. 14. America and the English Tradition| By Harry Morgan Ayres| | | This admirable summary of Anglo-American history first appeared (February, 1920) as an editorial in the Weekly Review. It seemed to me then, and still does, as a model in that form of writing, perfect in lucidity, temperance and good sense. Mr. Ayres is a member of the faculty of Columbia University (Department of English) and also one of the editors of the Weekly Review. Beowulf, Chaucer, Shakespeare and Seneca seem to be his favorite hobbies. | | Ã Ã To sum up the gist of Anglo-American relations in half a dozen pages, as Mr. Ayres does here, is surely a remarkable achievement. | THE RECENTLY established chair in the history, literature, and institutions of the United States which is to be shared among the several universities of Great Britain, is quite different from the exchange professorships of sometimes unhappy memory. It is not at all the idea to carry over one of our professors each year and indoctrinate him with the true culture at its source. The occupant of the chair will be, if the announced intention is carried out, quite as often British as American, and quite as likely a public man as a professor. The chief object is to bring to England a better knowledge of the United States, and a purpose more laudable can scarcely be imagined. Peace and prosperity will endure in the world in some very precise relation to the extent to which England succeeds in understanding us. Ã Ã Ã 1| Ã Ã It is not an illusion to suppose that our understanding of the British is on the whole better than theirs of us. The British Empire is a large and comparatively simple fact, now conspicuously before the world for a long time. The United States was, in British eyes, until recently, a comparatively insignificant fact, yet vastly more complicated than they imagined. Each, of course, perfectly knew the faults o f the other, assessed with an unerring cousinly eye. The American bragged in a nasal whine, the Briton patronized in a throaty burble. Whoever among the struggling nations of the world might win, England saw to it that she never lost; your Yankee was content with the more ignoble triumphs of merchandising, willing to cheapen life if he could only add to his dollars. But the excellence of English political institutions and methods, the charm of English life, the tremendous power of the Empire for promoting freedom and civilization in the world, these are things which Americans have long recognized and in a way understood. Anything like an equivalent British appreciation of America in the large seems confined to a very few honorable exceptions among them. Admiration for Niagara, which is half British anyway, or enthusiasm for the Ã¢â¬Å"Wild WestÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âyour better-class Englishman always thrills to the frontierÃ¢â¬âis no step at all toward rightly appreciating America. | Ã Ã Ã 2| Ã Ã To no inconsiderable extent this is AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s own fault. She does not present to the world a record that is easily read. It is obvious, for instanceÃ¢â¬âand so obvious that it is not often enough statedÃ¢â¬âthat America has and will continue to have a fundamentally English civilization. English law is the basis of her law. English speech is her speech, and if with a difference, it is a difference that the philologist, all things considered, finds amazingly small. English literature is her literatureÃ¢â¬âChaucer and Shakespeare hers because her blood then coursed indistinguishably through the English heart they knew so well; Milton, Dryden, and the Queen Anne men hers, because she was still a part of England; the later men hers by virtue of affectionate acquaintanceship and a generous and not inconsiderable rivalry. English history, in short, is her history. The struggles of the thirteenth century through which law and parliament came into being, the struggles of the seventeenth century through which law and parliament came to rule, are AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s struggles upon which she can look back with the satisfaction that some things that have been done in the world need never be undone or done over again, whatever the room for improvement may still be. Americans, no less than British, recognize that independence was largely an accidental result of a war which sprang out of a false theory of economics, but whose conclusion carried with it a lesson in the management of empire which subsequent history shows the British to have learned thoroughly and for the benefit of all concerned. American independence, however, once established, pointed a way to democratic freedom which England hastened to follow. This we know. And yetÃ¢â¬â| Ã Ã Ã 3| Ã Ã And yet we allow these obvious and fundamental considerations to become marvelously obscured. We allow EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to solve an insoluble Irish problem to arouse in us an attitude of mind possibly excusable in some Irishmen, but wholly inexcusable in any American. We allow a sentimental regard for some immigrant from Eastern Europe, who comes to us with a philosophy born of conditions that in English-speaking lands ceased to be centuries ago, to make us pretend to see in him the true expression of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional ideals. We allow ourselves to be far too easy with the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"He is not pro-German, he is merely anti-British. Why are they anti-British? Why should they be permitted to make it falsely appear that recognition of the English basis of America involves approval of everything that England in her history may or may not have done? Why should they be allowed to pretend that disapproval of some particular act of England justifies repudiation of most of the things by virtue of which we are what we are? America from the first has been part of the great English experimentÃ¢â¬âgreat because it is capable of learning from experience. Ã Ã Ã 4| Ã Ã The world has put a big investment in blood and treasure, and all that they imply, into the education of England. It is satisfiedÃ¢â¬âthe worldÃ¢â¬â¢s response to GeermanyÃ¢â¬â¢ insolent challenge is the proof of itÃ¢â¬âthat its pains have been well bestowed. England is more nearly fit than any other nation to wield the power that is hers. That is not to deny the peculiar virtues of other nations; indeed, these virtues have largely contributed to the result. Italy has educated her; France has educated her; we have done something; and Germany. In result, she is not perfectÃ¢â¬âthe English would perhaps least of all assert thatÃ¢â¬âbut she has learned a great deal and held herself steady while she learned it. It is a bigger job than the world cares to undertake to teach any other nation so much. Nor would it be at all likely to succeed so well. For what England has to offer the world in return is not simply her institutions; it is not merely a formula for the effective discharge of police duty throughout the world; it is the English freeman, whether he hail from Canada, Australia, Africa, or the uttermost isles of the sea. Ã Ã Ã 5| Ã Ã A most adaptable fellow, this freeman, doing all sorts of work everywhere, and with tremendous powers of assimilation. Consider him in his origins. He began by assimilating fully his own weight in Danes, while remaining an English freeman. He then perforce accepted a Norman King, as he had accepted a Danish one, hoping, as always, that the kind would not trouble him too much. But when Norman William, who was very ill-informed about the breed, killed off most of his natural leaders and harried the rest into villainy, how did he manage in a small matter of two hundred years or so to make an English gentleman not only of himself but of all the rag-tag of adventurers who had come over with William and since? How did he contrive, out of a band of exiles fleeing from an Egypt of ecclesiastical tyranny, broken younger sons, artisans out of a job, speculators, bondmen, Swedes, Dutchmen, and what not, to make America? Is he one likely to lose his bearings when in his America the age-old problem again heaves in view? This is a job he has been working at pretty successfully for more than a thousand years. Grant him a moment to realize himself afresh in the face of it. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t expect him to stop and give a coherent explanation of what he is doing. He wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be the true son of the English tradition that he is if he could do that. Perhaps the occupants of the new chair can do something of the sort for him.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Fluid Power School Essay Example Fluid Power School Essay Fluid Power School Essay Essay Topic: We Real Cool Fluid Power School BY Mikecole1911 Original November 10, 1994 BASIC PNEUMATICS FLUID POWER l. Basic definition of Fluid Power: A fluid is any media that will flow when contained in some form of vessel or conductor such pipe, hose or tubing. The media can be air, oil, water, gases etc. The media when moved with pressure or force is capable of producing ready energy, which can be used to perform limitless automated functions. Fluid power is most often used to create linear and or rotary motion. The forms of fluid power discussed in this forum are pneumatic technology with some light coverage of hydraulics. A. Trends with Fluid Power: 1. The field of hydraulics is a growth industry in the USA. The primary cause for this expansion is the fact that many manufacturers in the US are automating a great deal of heavy manufacturing industries in order to compete with overseas developing nations, and the European and Japanese manufacturers that have already been in the automation mode for many years. Hydraulic technology is the heavy-duty muscles of manufacturing, no other form of industrial power provides as much work capability at a competitive cost. Along with this muscle come environmental oncerns, proper disposal of warn out hydraulic oil, old strainers and filters are issues that need to be addressed. The other obvious area is leaks in hydraulic systems are a constant nuisance. 2. Pneumatic technology is growing rapidly every year. This is largely due to many factors; Pneumatic fluid power is clean, less expensive to implement than hydraulics, and economical to use. As the domestic manufacturing base moves toward lighter high tech type industries, compressed air still provide more bang for the Buck than any other power source without the negative environmental effects of hydraulics. : Linear and rotary motion can be generated with great speed, reliability and precision using pneumatic cylinders, air motors and rotary actuators. Compressed air technology has seen great expansion as original equipment manufactures (OEMS) continue to utilize pneumatic systems on their machines and equipment. Most of the time the customer has plant air available for use, but in some cases OEMs are using small on board compressors that are quiet, efficient and capable of producing ample volumes of compressed air at pressures up to 150 psig. The copier industry and medical fields are two major examples. Almost anyone can benefit from a working knowledge of basic pneumatic capability. That is the intent of this seminar, to provide a basic exposure of general capabilities that could be employed to meet the pneumatic needs in your business. Seminar Format: A: Generic presentations of various fluid power components: The basic functions and variations of the major components available in the Fluid Power Industry. B: Review the basic layout of a pneumatic system. 2. FRL Gauges 3. Safety Blow Down Valve (Lockout valve) 4. Directional Control Valves 5. Actuators Cylinders, rotary actuators, air motors, Robotic Grippers etc. Accessories Flow Controls, needle valves, pressure switches, check valves, vacuum generators, relief valves etc. 7. Pneumatic Logic (alternative to PLC) C: ANSI Symbol Handout and Overview: D: Basic Pneumatic Schematic Handout: 1. Review Pneumatic ANSI symbols 2. Walk through schematic Ill. Generic Presentations of Components Compressor: There are several types of air compressors on the market today. The most common are rotary screw and reciprocating piston type compressors. Most compressors require oil similar to automobile engines to extend life and keep them running moothly. This oil is almost always present in the compressed air sent into the plants air system. The oil can be in the form of burned off hydrocarbons, air line or airborne oil in liquid or vapor form. Compressor selection for a facility is not the focus of this seminar, but Component Supply is an authorized Ingersoll Rand Dealer and we can assist anyone that needs to select a compressor for your facility. A full range of portable or on board compressors are also available that range from sizes small enough to fit in the palm of your hand, to 2 horsepower units. These small ompressors generate surprisingly high volumes of air and vacuum at pressures up to 150 psig and vacuum to 28. 8 Hg. These compressors are usually oiless in design and are an industry unto them selves. Liquid handling systems and process control are other areas that can be assisted by the use of fluid power technology. As stated before, anything that flows can be dealt with using this industrys equipment and technology. So keep this in mind for any needs you may have that fit this general description. FRL Gauges: FRLs or filters, regulators and lubricators are used to properly condition the air for use in a pneumatic system. These combination units can be provided in full size confguration or a more compact miniature version. Many people assume that com pressed air is clean by its nature, this is a great misnomer and poor quality compressed air will cause components to wear faster, and inhibit the reliability of the system. Compressed air is a control medium Just as is electricity; it needs to be conditioned from raw form in order to work as expected. Electricity must be filtered and so does air. The contraction FRL is also the order in which the conditioning proc ess takes place. Air is first filtered, and then regulated to the proper working ressure and, in some systems it is then lubricated to improve the function of various components. A pressure gauge mounted to the regulator will indicate the operating pressure in the system. Properly conditioned air is the grass roots toa well-designed fluid power system. Filtration: Particulate Function and dynamics 2. Depth Filtration-Torturous Path 3. Contaminant Removal 4. Water removal -Removes water in droplet form no vapor removal. 5. Element micron size Element Materials Polypropylene and Sintered Bronze 6. Flow rating vs. element rating finer rating yields lower flow. Coalescing Function and ynamics 1 . Oil Removal-Droplet and aerosols 2. Particulate removal-Depth filtration 3. Aerosol removal coalescing style filters filters out oil aerosols and their negative effects to system reliability are removed as well. 4. Life expectancy of the element average 3-6 months. Check the color Brown = need for change. 5. Material is borosilicate glass Pre-Filter desirability, 5 Micron particulate filters extend life and function of Coalescing unit. 6. Flow capability / pressure drop Options for Filters: Polycarbonate or Metal Bowls Automatic and Manual drains 2. 3. Sight Glasses 4. Diverter blocks . Mounting Options A. Nipple Mount B. Modular Mount Systems Maintenance general WATER REMOVAL: Water in pneumatic systems has been a common problem for circuits that use on board oiless compressors. This is because there is usually not much distance between point of use for the air and the compressor the temperature of compressed air is elevated after compression and drops rapidly when it travels through the system. This temperature drops result in the dew point being reduced all the way through the system and developing water as the higher temperature of newly compressed air-cools and expands. In most industrial plant pneumatic systems a refrigerated air dryer is used to cool the compressed air and remove most of the water before it ever leaves the compressor room. Particulate filters are very efficient water removers when the water is in droplet form. Simple heat exchangers such as coiled copper tubing and serpentine bending arrangements have proven VERY effective at getting the water into droplet form. This allows the filters to take the water out of the system and thus improve reliability. Todays technology also allows you more tolerance for water in the system than older types of valve and cylinder esigns. We never advocate water as acceptable in the systems but components that can handle it will make your system more reliable and efficient. Pressure Regulators: What is their purpose in the system 1 . Function and Dynamics Two way normally open valves with diaphragm or piston as the regulation device. 2. Relieving and Non-relieving Styles 3. Regulation ranges 0-20, Instrument, 0-60 Low, 0-125 General 4. Mounting options 5. Tamper resistance Caps, Keys, Removable knobs 6. Maintenance general Lubricators: 1 . Function and Dynamics Sump-siphon tube-bypass check valve needle valve sight ome. 2. Flow required allowing the lubricator to function (2 SCFM Minimum) 3. Forms of Lubricators Fog Type: Fog Type lubricators are best applied for general-purpose type applications where the components are not sensitive to over lubrication or very precise lubrication. Micro Fog Type: Micro Fog Type lubricators are best applied in those applications where the components require fine-metered oil mist lubrication. This type of unit provides a more uniform supply of atomized oil mist. Drop type: Drop Type lubricators are best applied for general-purpose type applications where the omponents are not sensitive to over lubrication or very precise lubrication and the oil mist is not required to be as fine as those created by mist type lubricators. The oil dispensed from drop type lubricators will travel the shortest distance to components. 4. Maintenance general refilling procedures, fill under pressure, button fill features, bowl removal potential wear and failure points. Integral Filter / Regulators 1. Form Function and Dynamics 2. Advantages 3. Particulate Filters are usually the only type available in (Piggy Back) units. Some are now available in Coalescing style units. 4. Safety Blow Down Valves (Lockout Valve): Safety blow down valves are three way valves that shut off the air supply to a machine or system and then exhaust the remaining air in the machine to atmosphere. The primary purpose of this item is for SAFETY. Valves of this type are an absolute must in any machine, control circuit or system. By exhausting the residual air in the machine to atmosphere there is no stored energy in the machine. One last cycle in the machine could crush an operators hand or cause other types of injury. This is an OSHA requirement that should NEVER be ignored. Remember, a 2. 5 ore air cylinder with 80 psig pressure behind it has 400 lbs. of force ready willing and able to do great damage if accidentally cycled. Lockout valves function and features: Lockout or blows down valves are three way valves usually with a palm button or lever actuator positioned to allow the operator to depressurize the machine by hitting the button in an emergency. The air supply is terminated and residual pressure in the system is exhausted. A Lockout Valve: A lockout valve is the same function as described above except a padlock device is also provided to allow a service technician to lock the air supply in the off position. This guarantees safety to the technician when working on the machine; he can physically lock the valve in the closed position. Directional Control Valves: Directional control valves are utilized to control the operation of fluid power actuators or direct the flow of fluids in more than one direction. A single acting actuator requires Pressure in one direction to operate and a spring or load will return it. A three way directional control valve is used to operate a single acting actuator. A actuator. A four way directional control valve is used to operate a double acting unit. These components will be explained in detail later on. There are many functions of valves in industrial automation systems, 85% of all directional control valves for cylinder, air motor, or rotary actuator control are four way valves. Actuator control is not the only purpose directional control valves serve, the designer is really only limited to their own creativity. Valve Function and Flow Patterns Two Way Valves 1. Normally Open (Passing) 2. Normally Closed (Non: Double Solenoid vs. Single Solenoid Valve Design and Configuration 1. Poppet Style A. Armature Style Direct Lift (Direct Acting) B. Rubber Poppet (Pilot Assisted) 2. Spool Valves (Balanced vs. Unbalanced) A. Dynamic Seal B. Lapped Spool and Sleeve C. Bonded Spool D. Lapped Spool in Body A. In Line Mount B. Bar Stock Manifold Mounting C. Flexible Manifold Mounting/ Electrical interface options Sub-D 25 PIN, Fieldbus etc. 4. Stacking Mounts Custom designs for the OEM or special needs. 5. Accessories A. Sandwich Flow Controls B. Sandwich Regulators C. Blocking Discs D. Blank Station Plates E. Exhaust Restrictors F. Indicator Lights / Surge Suppression G. Integral vacuum generators attached to valves Cylinders Cylinders provide linear motion that can be used to perform a limitless amount of mechanical functions. Cylinders are available from fractional bore size up to 24 bore and beyond providing a range of forces capable of achieving almost anything. Air cylinders usually employ some type of elastomer sealing mechanism such as an O ring or lip type seals. Hydraulic cylinders sometimes use elastomer seals for lower pressures (1500 psig and below) or automotive style metallic piston rings for higher pressures of 5000 psig and higher. They can sometimes be thought of as air cylinders on steroids. Because hydraulics was the first form of fluid power air cylinders that followed were at first nothing more than converted hydraulic cylinders with soft seals (leather initially) that would be leak free with air. As a result air cylinders were at first ver designed and a classic case of overkill. In the past decades air cylinders have been streamlined and cost reduced to meet the cost/function goals of todays industrial market. There are basically two forms of cylinders, single acting and double acting. A single acting cylinder requires pressure from one direction to extend or retract it, and uses a spring or the weight of the load to operate it in the opposite direction. (Usually operated by a three-way valve) The side of the piston opposite the pressure source must be allowed to vent to atmosphere if its an air cylinder or return to tank if its a hydraulic cylinder. A double acting cylinder requires pressure in both directions to extend and retract the cylinder. (Usually operated by a four-way valve) The side of the piston that is not being pressurized is allowed to exhaust back through the valve either to atmosphere or to tank. Cylinder Styles and Confgurations A. Roll crimped Stainless Steel Bimba Style B. Barrel Type Threaded body C. NFPA Tie Rod Design Interchangeable Type D. Low Profile or Pancake Style E. Power Slides F. Rodless Cylinders/Cable Cylinders/Band Cylinders G. Linear Thrusters/ Non-Rotating Cylinders H. Parts Feed Escapements l. Rolling Diaphragm Style Cylinders K. Multi-Position Cylinders (Duplex Cylinders) L. Position Feedback Cylinders M. ISO Interchange IS06431 IS06432 Cylinder Features and Function A. Cushions B. Bumpers C. Shock Absorbers D. Position Sensing 1 . Magnetic Reed Switch (MRS) 2. Hall Effect Switch 3. Integral Mechanical Proximity Switches 4. Integral Mechanical Pneumatic Switches 5. Transducer Probes-position Feedback E. High Temperature F. Pressure Breakaway issues and specifications Special Cylinders in General Speed Control of Cylinders (Speed can be made variable to need) A. Flow Controls B. Needle Valves C. Exhaust Restrictors/Speed Control Mufflers D. Fixed Orifice Meter In vs. Meter Out speed control methodology Factors That Reduce Cylinder Life A. Side Load B. Poor Quality Air C. Too Much Lubrication D. Improper Mounting Creates Side Load E. Stroke Length Long Strokes F. Bottoming out on The End Caps G. High Cycle Rates High or Low Temperature Calculating Cylinder Force The force that an air cylinder is capable of producing can be calculated by taking the area of piston diameter and then multiplying it by the airline pressure you have available. You must remember to deduct the piston rod area from the retract side of he piston because your working pressure will not be able to act on this surface. A key point to remember is that fluid power is FLEXIBLE power by reducing or increasing your working pressure you can decrease or increase your force exerted at a known rate. The formula for this calculated using: 0 x roo x Line pressure = Output stroke or rotation of a pneumatic device. Electrical drive mechanisms generally do not have this feature and are limited in stroke or travel. Air Motors Air Motors provide rotary motion with a shaft that can be continuous in either one or both directions. The air motor is an alternate source of power in lieu of the electric motor. Air motors can be stalled without damage or a rise in heat, which is a real advantage over electric motors. Air consumption and exhaust noise is the two major concerns for air motors. It is also important to note that air motors must be lubricated. Vanes are used inside the motor for the air to act on and drive the shaft. There is a known amount of leakage past the vanes when the motor is both stalled and operational. Adjusting the working pressure exposed to the motor can vary the power or torque provided by an air motor. Valve selection and speed control options are basically the same as would be used for air cylinders. A unidirectional air motor is analogous to a single acting air cylinder and a Bi-directional motor is analogous to a double acting cylinder. Rotary Actuators Rotary actuators provide rotary motion to a shaft through conversion of cylinders attached toa rack and pinion or a vane. As the rack and pinion move or the vane moves the attached shaft provides rotary motion usually not more than one revolution or 3600, when the rack or vane is returned to the home position the shaft is also returned to the home position. The actual rotation of the shaft can be specified when ordering usually this is done in 450 increments. The actuator can be single acting and returned with a spring or double acting and returned with pressure. Rotation adjustments are very handy and reduce the need for extreme tolerances of other mechanisms that help reduce overall machine cost. Styles and Rack and Pinion Style A. Single Rack vs. Double Rack B. Backlash How to eliminate it. C. Higher in precision than vane type D. Shaft Vs. Flange output Vane Type A. Low Cost B. High Breakaway C. Shorter Life D. Higher Rate of Leakage E. Limited Range of Rotation (2700 Max) Control of Actuator Motion A. Valving 4 Way valves 2 3 position valves. B. Speed Control of actuators 1 . Flow Controls 2. Needle Valves 3. Fixed Orifice 1. Bumpers 2. Cushions 3. Hydraulic Shock Absorbers C. Accuracy the precision of a rotary actuator is usually a function of control and design by the end user. The implementation of hard stops and bumpers etc determine type ability to achieve maximum repeatability. Options For Rotary Actuators Position sensing all of the switching options that are available on cylinders are also available in rotary actuators as well. Proximity sensing can also be used in both external and even internal formats. A. Rotation Adjustment *** C. Dual shafts D. Multiple Angles E. Cushions Bumpers F. Non Standard Port Location G. Specials Pneumatic Robotic Grippers Grippers are usually used in higher-level automation systems where pick and place type functions are required. Depending on the style and confguration needed the grippers can range from being very low cost to several hundred dollars. Remember one very important fact you can always purchase a better gripper for less money than it costs to design and make your own. 1. Basic Styles A. Parallel Grippers Jaws move in parallel motion. B. Angular Grippers Jaws move in angular parallel motion 900 Grippers 1800 Grippers 2. Basic Features and Function A. Stroke Adjustments B. Open and Closed Sensors C. Single and Double Acting D. Optical Encoder Option E. Repeatability from Gripper to Gripper (key for field service) F. Operational repeatability l. Accessories and Miscellaneous Components A. Flow Controls C. Check Valve D. Pressure Switches E. Vacuum Generators G. Relief Valves H. Quick Exhaust Valve REV. B Revised 03/07/93 enhanced coverage expanded verbiage of descriptive areas. REV. C Revised 09/10/93 tailored format and topics to OEM business and imaging machine needs. REV. D. Revised 11/10/94 to have a more generic appeal. REV. E. 1 1/1 5/95 Converted File from WordStar 6. 0 to MS Word 7. 0, removed some information that does not apply to customers. REV. G 05/21/2001 Updated basic wording in various areas. July 17, 1995 Pneumatic Logic Introduction: Pneumatic Logic is a control medium very similar to electricity. Over the years the popularity of pneumatic control logic has varied depending on several issues such as reliability, cost, troubleshooting, technology and application nvironments. Moving Parts Logic (MPL) Also Known as Pilot Logic, MPL can be used in conjunction with or in lieu of electrical controls on automated machines. This form of control medium was very popular in the 1970s due to lower cost and small size compared to relay electrical control systems. Todays PLCs have closed that gap in a dramatic fashion. Today MPL has its place in hazardous applications such as paint spray booths or areas where a spark could cause an explosion. In automated assembly or automatic machines Pneumatic Logic is still the lowest cost form of Anti-tie Down echanisms and assembly processes that require 5 or less steps. After 5 steps or more the PLC is often (but not always) lower in cost and smaller in size than MPL, it also offers better diagnostics for debug. When used in conjunction with Air Pilot operated power valves, manually and mechanically operated Limit Valves MPL allows for sequencing, time delays, parts sensing, position sensing etc. Almost any automated process can be achieved with MPL. Pneumatic Logic when applied properly is also very compact and highly reliable. 1. Mounting Formats A. Individual Bases
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Legal Systems and Contract Law - Assignment Example The scenario presented by the case of Arju, a consumer who went to purchase a power washer at a local store whereby she was assisted by three different people. This case involves a number of parties and therefore, the Scots contract law will be applied in this case. Question A1 In this scenario, we witness a customer who advised Arju to purchase a certain power washer (AK47 Watersquirt). Arju purchased the water washer based on the recommendation of the customer. In this scenario, as the lawyer representing Arju, I would advise him not to pursue this case in a court of law. This is because the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation amounted to something more or else of a promise. According to the Scots Law of contract, a unilateral promise is not recognised as a contract. The provisions of the Scots Law of contract do not recognize unilateral promises which are against the provisions of this law. This is similar to the case of Punit Beriwala v. Suva Sanyal , whereby Suva had sued Pun it for breach of contract based on a marriage promise. The court held that the promise was not enforceable and therefore the promise could not be considered as a binding contract. According to the Scots law of contracts, for a contract to be binding it must be a bilateral agreement between two parties. On the other hand a contract can exist whereby a person has obligation to perform duties in relation to another person. This type of contract is referred to as a gratuitousÃ contract (Douglas,Ã 56). In the case of Arju, she was not advised by the customer in this scenario but the customer was merely expressing her opinion. As a result, a court of law would not recognize this as a breach of contract since there was no contract in the first place. According to the Scots Law of contracts, a contract is an agreement between two or more parties with the intention of creating legally binding obligations. Therefore, the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s recommendation had no intention of creating legall y binding agreement. As the legal representative of Arju, I would advise her not to pursue a case against the said customer but instead try to be careful the next time. Question A2 In another scenario, we witness a sales assistant who is not familiar with power washers but goes ahead to assure Arju that the store sells quality goods. However, the sales assistant omitted information concerning customer recalls on goods on faulty goods. Based on the information provided by this case, as the lawyer for Arju, I would advise her to sue the sales assistant and the shop for breach of contract. According to the Scots Law of contracts, a contract is an agreement between two or more parties. In terms of promises one makes to another, the Scots Law of contracts requires the promise to be done in writing or be proved by a writ or oath. However, this provision excludes undertaking done under businesses. Therefore, the sales assistantÃ¢â¬â¢s reassurance of the good quality of goods sold by the store amounted to a breach of contract. The promise given to Arju by the sales assistant compelled Arju to purchase from the store leading to a loss (Hare, 64). As a result, Arju should sue the store based on the information provided by the sales assistant. Another provision of the Scots Law of contract is that for a contract to be legal and binding there must be free and genuine consent of the parties. In this scenario, the sales assist
Monday, February 3, 2020
Something important that you learned from this course - Essay Example They view the need for change as the opportunity for employees to succeed in their professional lives and increase the level of productivity. According to Lussier and Achua, an effective leadership is one that influences constituencies to make a shift from self-interests to collective interests of the group (348). In short, the role of leaders is to identify the need of the followers, make them aware of the need to fulfill those needs, provide followers a well-designed and practical strategy to follow, and to motivate people to continue their efforts for the achievement of goals and objectives. On the other hand, managers are people who supervise and control the activities of their subordinates in order to keep organizational system running. Here, an important point to mention is that managers are not born, they are appointed as managers by the top officials and stakeholders of their respective companies. Conversely, leaders are not appointed, rather they are born as leaders. Manager s have all abilities of an effective leader due to which they get the opportunity to manage other employees. Top management officials include the stakeholders and owners of companies who appoint managers based on their effective management and leadership skills. Managers are the most talented employees of a company who are able to show their managerial skills and decision-making ability in carrying out their job tasks as the result of which the top officials appoint them as managers of their respective departments. They get those promotions based on their ability to manage and control their own tasks and other employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ activities in an effective manner. Leadership plays a key role in motivating people to achieve the desired set of goals. Without having an effective leadership with a clear approach and strategy, it is impossible for the followers to make a successful struggle towards the achievement of goals (Coutts 1). Employees need to keep up their confidence and motivati on to continue working for the cause in an efficient manner even in recession. Sometimes, such phases occur in a project when the level of enthusiasm and motivation of employees go down. In such cases, managers are the people who play the role of effective leaders and drive employees towards completion of the project without any delay. Analyzing these aspects of leadership and management, it is evident that both concepts are interconnected and do not have any considerable difference between them.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
History Of Materials In The Aviation Industry Engineering Essay Aircraft materials have faced an overwhelming phase of change since the takeoff of the first designed aircraft to the skies. This has seen aircraft designers changing the design materials from merely wood and fibre in the early days to composite materials and aluminium alloys in modern days aircrafts. Composite materials and aluminium alloys were introduced in the industry rapidly. Due to advancement in technology the use of wood in manufacturing aircraft structures is now history. This review covers the use of composite materials and aluminium alloys in the design of modern aircrafts, both civil and military. It also compares the usage of these two materials in aircraft structures. Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Aircraft materials have faced an overwhelming phase of change since the takeoff of the first designed aircraft to the skies. This has seen aircraft designers changing the materials of design from merely wood and fibre in the early days to composite materials and aluminium alloys in modern days aircrafts. Early aircrafts were constructed mainly of wood and fabric, the Wright flyer (1903) is an example. Manufacturers preferred relatively light and strong wood such as spruce and fabrics, which were normally linen or something similarly close-weaved. These materials were selected looking at different characteristics which include among other the weight, strength, cost and availability of the material. Due to advancement in technology the use of wood in manufacturing aircraft structures is now a thing of the past. The use of metals in aircraft structures had to await modern material development processes such as alloy development. This processes produced stronger and better materials which allowed high speed flight. Materials produced were better as they allowed heavy loads and they showed better resistance to stress corrosion cracking. The introduction of computers has been of massive input in the field of aerospace. These seen engineers perform deep analysis of strain; stress and fatigue on new materials before there are introduced in aircraft structures. And as a result, the number of aircraft accidents reduced drastically. This review aims to cover the use of composite materials and aluminium alloys in the design of both civil and military modern aircrafts, and compare the usage of the two materials in aircraft structures. COMPOSITE MATERIALS Composites have been the most important materials to have been introduced in the aviation sector since the use of aluminium in the early years. Wright et al (2003) defines composite materials as, a combination of linear elements of one material in a matrix of one another material. This implies that composites are engineered materials made from two or more ingredients with significantly differing properties, either physical or chemical. The application of composite date back in the 1940s to the F-15 (US Air Force) fighters, which used boron/epoxy empennages. Initially the percentage by weight of composite materials used was 2%.Since then, the use of composites has rapidly accelerated. In 1981, the British aerospace- McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier flew with over 25% of its structures made of composite materials (Schmitt, 2008). This shows that composite materials were introduced at a very high rate in the aviation industry. Though composites have been introduced in aviation with such a fierce rate, it was proved they are expensive to produce. They are also hard to inspect for flaws and some easily absorb moisture. Despite the above mentioned disadvantages, composites still play a major role in modern day aircrafts. This is so because of their greater strength and lighter weights. Callus (2007) claims that regardless of the disadvantages of composites, they were introduced because they allowed a quantum leap in aircraft performance. Performance is in the form of light weight, ability, useful payload and super high speeds. USES OF COMPOSITES IN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES Since each aircraft is unique, it is impossible to generalise where various materials are being used in current aircrafts, but reference to a specific example illustrates the trend. Figure 1 below shows composite materials used in Boeing 787. http://people.bath.ac.uk/ck258/new%20materials%20documents/Composite%20materials_files/image002.jpg Figure 1. Composite materials used in Boeing 787 structures. Adapted from: http://people.bath.ac.uk/ck258/new%20materials%20documents/Composite%20materials.htm The above figure clearly gives a clear indication of the introduction of composites in aircraft structures. It can be confidently stated that composites form about 50% of the weight of the materials used in modern day aircrafts. This can be seen from the pie chart in figure 1. The commonly used composites are fibreglass, carbon laminate composites and carbon sandwich composite. Some composites include the Titanium and polymer matrix composites. COMPOSITION OF COMPOSITES Composite materials are made of two materials, one acting as the matrix and the other as the reinforcement material. These constituent materials determine the mechanical properties of the composite. The matrix has a lower density, stiffness and strength than the reinforcement material, and as a result the reinforcement of the matrix, to provide the majority of the strength and stiffness of a composite is accomplished by the fibres. They can be metallic, organic, synthetic or mineral. American Composite Manufacturers Association (2004) considers epoxy resins as one of the well known matrix material to have been used in a wide range of composite parts and structures. It further states that a major advantage of using Epoxy resins over other matrix materials is their lower shrinkage. http://navyaviation.tpub.com/14018/img/14018_593_1.jpg Figure 2. Aircraft advanced composite application usage. Adapted from: http://navyaviation.tpub.com/14018/css/14018_593.htm The table shows that the in early aircrafts composites were introduced in smaller quantities. This is the case with the F-14 aircraft which was first introduced in September 1974 (Hickman, 2012). Comparing the percentage of composite materials of the F-14 with the F/A-18, which was introduced in January 1983, one can notice that the F/A-18 contained a higher percentage of composites which is 20% as compared to the 0.04% of the F-14. This 19.96% difference may have been due to the introduction of modern material development processes. The mostly used reinforcement fibres are: glass fibre, carbon pitch based, Boron chemical vapour deposition (CVD) fibres, Alumina, Aramid, Carbon Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and Polyethylene. Baker, Dutton and Kelly (2004, pp. 57) claim glass fibres are used mostly in airframes of gliders and in secondary structures such as fairings. The trio further explain that this is the case because this is where their low specific stiffness is not a problem in the design process, and because of their low cost as compared to high performance fibres. Such high performance composites include carbon fibre reinforced carbon. This is a composite material made from carbon fibre reinforcement in a carbon matrix. Diagram of carbon-reinforced carbon Figure 3. Material properties of a carbon fibre reinforced carbon. Adapted from: http://www.materialsviews.com/understanding-carbon-reinforced-carbon According to Grolms (2011), carbon fibre reinforced carbon is used mainly in high performance and high cost applications in aerospace technology. He further explains that this composite material is used widely in nose cones, wing leading edges in space shuttles and in aircraft brake systems. ALUMINIUM ALLOYS Aluminium has been the main structural element since 1930. This was made possible by its lightness as compared to other metals which are referred to as heavy, steel for example. Also, aluminium has been selected because of its indomitable strength to weight ratio. Although aluminium is not the strongest of the pure materials, its alloys use other elements to bridge the gap and improve its strength. Starke and Staley (1995) claims that aluminium is still selected as a structural material for the fuselage, wings and supporting structure for commercial airliners because of its well known performance characteristics, known fabrication costs, design experience and established manufacturing methods and practices. The duo continue on saying low specific gravity of aluminium leads to high specific properties giving aluminium alloys an upper hand in weight critical applications. Weight and strength Figure 4. Weight and Strength- aluminium is approximately one third as dense as steel. Aluminium alloys have tensile strengths of between 70 and 700 MPa. Adapted from: http://www.powerofaluminium.com/page.asp?node=45sec=Properties . Aluminium alloys were mainly created to tackle the weight problems of aircraft structures, but due to modern research and studies they have been recently studied for use in liquid oxygen and hydrogen fuel tanks, application which Starke and Staley (1995,pp.167) referred to as cryogenic. The development of aluminium-lithium alloy replaced the conventional airframe alloys. Its lower density property was thought to reduce the weight and accelerate the performance of aircrafts. This development, lead to the introduction of commercial alloys 8090, 2090 and 2091 in the mid 1980s (Davis, 1993). Weldalite 049 and CP276 were introduced shortly thereafter. Davis (1993) further says that aluminium alloys have a superior fatigue crack propagation resistance as compared to other alloys. This is due to high levels of crack tip shielding, meandering crack path and the resultant roughness induced crack closure (Davis, 1993). ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS AND COMPOSITES USES IN AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES The future of aluminium alloys in the aerospace industry seems brighter than that of its competitors, the composite materials. Even though the use composite materials is continuously growing, it recently became clear that aluminium alloys will in the near future be the winners of the fierce competition between the two materials. The airbus A380 give a clear indication of this. It shows that 61% of its structure is composed of aluminium alloys, 22% being composites, 10% is titanium and steel, and 3% of the structure is made of fibre metal laminates (Key to Metal, 2012). http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S1359645403005020-gr10.jpg Figure 5: Material distribution for Airbus A380 by percentage, Adapted from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359645403005020 It appears the rivalry between composites materials and aluminium alloys in the manufacturing of aircraft structures will continue to exist even in the future. This report claims aluminium alloys have the upper hand due to the fact that aluminium is less expensive as compared to composites, and recycling aluminium is not that difficult as compared to recycling composites, meaning that aluminium alloys are more environmental friendly. To support this claim, Arval (2010) pointed out that Bombardier has chosen Airware, a new aluminium alloy, for its upcoming CSeries, and Airbus has also shown that new aluminium alloys may be feasible for its next aisle aircraft. CONCLUSION In this report, the use of composite materials in aircrafts has been thoroughly discussed, pointing out their advantages and their disadvantages. The report identifies the main disadvantage of using composites in aircrafts being its high cost. The other disadvantage of using composite mentioned is their repair problems. It has been proved that composite can give a headache when it comes to repairing from ground damages, which usually avail themselves during baggage loading and other ground accidents. Nevertheless, the report also states that composites are still playing a major role in the aviation industry. This is due to their remarkable strength and their lighter weight. Also outlined in the report is the use of aluminium alloys in modern day aircrafts. Indicated in the report is that, even though aluminium alloys are not currently the main material for aircraft structure, they are awaited by a bright future. New aluminium alloys have been opted over composites for new aircraft technologies because they are recyclable, less expensive, and their characteristics and damage tolerance are well known. The development of new aviation materials since the 1980s was a major achievement in the industry since the number of aviation accidents reduced significantly. Carrying out more research on new aviation materials can see aircraft accidents reducing to probably zero, and this is a call for researchers to concentrate more on new aviation materials.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Whenever a new model is introduced at Toshiba, management attempts to improve the assembling process in terms of increasing productivity and decreasing costs. Attentiveness is directed towards reducing the amount of components and simplifying production and assembly. Manufacturing engineering manager Toshihiro Nakamura introduced a prototype assembly sheet concerning the new notebook model. The following precedence graph examines the process sheet. Task numbers: 1-17; task time in seconds (in brackets). The assembly line consists out of 6 workstations. Labour time (in seconds) for each workstation is indicated in brackets. Workstation 1, task 1 (75). Workstation 2, tasks 2 and 3 (85). Workstation 3, tasks 4, 5 and 6 (97). Workstation 4, tasks 7, 8 and 9 (105). Workstation 5, tasks 10-15 (101). (Workstations 6, 7 and 8 are operating the software load). The final workstation 9 handles tasks 16 and 17 (120). The sum of task time therefore equals 583 seconds. The assembly line is designed assuming that one notebook would be assembled every 2 minutes by six workers. Therefore, daily capacity of the assembly line would be 225 units (450 minutes operating time per day), assuming that on each one of the six workstations a computer is positioned at the beginning of the day. Initial production for the new model is 150 units per day, increasing to 250 the following week and eventually up to 300 units, depending on process success. The bottleneck in this assemblyÃ line is located between workstation 4 and 5. Workstation 4 completes its tasks (7, 8, and 9) within 105 seconds whereas workstation 5 finishes after 101 seconds. This results in a slack of 4 seconds per unit at workstation 5. A potential solution to this problem might be assigning higher skilled staff to workstation 4 in order to push on assembly time. More detailed recommendations will follow. This bottleneck constitutes the major issue within this production process and will be examined in more detail in the following. Analysing the major issues concerns calculating potential slack times at workstation 5 regarding different amounts of units being produced. With the initial production of 150 units per day, a slack of 600 seconds (10 minutes) at workstation 5 would appear per day. It takes 3 minutes to finish one unit, assuming that 150 units are produced per day with an operating time of 7.5 hours. Producing 250 units per day means that one unit is assumed to be finished after 1.8 minutes or 108 seconds. When production increases up to 300 units per day, operating time per unit would be 1.5 minutes or 90 seconds. Hence, increasing production results in increased slack times at workstation 5. With a production of 250 units per day, slack time would be 1000 seconds or 16.67 minutes. Within those 16.7 minutes of slack time, 9.3 units could have been produced. With a production of 300 units per day, slack time would even increase up to 20 minutes in which 13.3 units could have been produced. These calculations clearly illustrate inefficiency at workstation 4 which results in major costs due to relatively high idle times. Extrapolating these numbers up to a working week, assuming that 5 days Ã ¡ 7.5 hours the assembly line is in operation, significantly high slack times and therefore unnecessary costs arise. Assuming a production of 250 units per day, slack time at station 5 per week would be 83.5 minutes in which an additional 46 units could have been produced. Efficiency of the assembly line will be calculated in the following with regard on different amounts of units being produced. Eventually the optimal number of units to reach an efficiency of 100% will be calculated. With 250 units produced per day, a cycle time of 108 seconds per unit results. Hence, using the formula for calculating the lineÃ ´s efficiency, (sum of task times = 583 seconds/6 workstations x 108 seconds cycle time) results in an efficiency rate of m89.97% (~ 90%). Running at a maximum capacity of 300 units per day (583/6Ãâ"90), line efficiency would be 107.96% which is not close to reality. Relative to its use of labour, an efficiency of ~ 108% producing at maximum capacity is not achievable. More workers would be needed and staff would have to work on one task simultaneously. An efficiency of 100% can be reached with a daily production of 277 units per day assuming that the assembly line maintains its initial set up of 6 workstations with the same labour time. The actual efficiency rate (with 277 units produced per day) constitutes 99.66% which is the maximum that can be reached. In order to dispense the previously discussed issue of inefficiency at workstation 4, several recommendations will be highlighted. Firstly, the easiest solution in relation to not changing the assembly set up would be to assign more skilled workers to station 4 in order to speed up the assembling process. Going hand in hand with this assumption is that the supporter might help staff at workstation 4. The problem is though, that the supporterÃ ´s task certainly is to help out the assembly workers where help is needed but his/her task is not to stay in one spot at all times. Moreover, redesigning the assembly set up might benefit workstation 4. The redesign is concerned with the optimal placement of staff. In the case of ToshibaÃ ´s assembly line it might be helpful to expand the section of workstation 4 in order to place one or two additional workers. Another possible solution might be to place additional staff not just on one side of the conveyer belt but on the other one as well. Especially in the section of workstation 4 additional help from across might be a solution. The assembly line has space for a total of 12 positions. Not all are being used. Another potential determination might be to split up workstation 4 into two and place the new one in a free spot. Regarding the calculations of slack times and efficiency with different amounts of units being produced, one can conclude that ToshibaÃ ´s assembly line is relatively efficient but has space to improve. Workstation 4 represents the main problem of this case but several potential solutions were presented. Overall efficiency of this assembly line is quite high and appropriate. (All calculations were made without considering any break times)
Friday, January 10, 2020
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